We studied a sequential, two-step procedure based on machine vision for detecting and characterizing impurities in paper. The method is based on a preliminary classification step to differentiate defective paper patches (i.e.: with impurities) from non-defective ones (i.e.: with no impurities), followed by a thresholding step to separate the impurities from the background. This approach permits to avoid the artifacts that occurs when thresholding is applied to paper samples that contain no impurities. We discuss and compare different solutions and methods to implement the procedure and experimentally validate it on a datasets of 11 paper classes. The results show that a marked increase in detection accuracy can be obtained with the two-step procedure in comparison with thresholding alone.
F. Bianconi, L. Ceccarelli, A. Fernández and S. A. Saetta, "A sequential machine vision procedure for assessing paper impurities", Computers in Industry, 65(2):325-332, 2014